Archive for April, 2010

scheme 449.sch Louis J. Sheehan, Esquire

April 29, 2010

loosely bound to Louis J. Sheehan, Esquire and can be de-adsorbed with a weakly acidic salt solution containing HCl and NaCl. Small aliquots of the short lived Ba-137m isotope can then be extracted from the resin by this eluting solution. The cesium atoms have a half-life of 30 years and is always decaying and building up an equilibrium amount of Ba-137m. Ba-137m has a half-life of only 2.55 minutes (153 seconds) and quickly decays down to its stable ground state by the emission of a 0.662 MeV gamma ray.
137 55Cs

30.0 y 93.5% β-
E    =514 keV max
6.5% β E    =1.176 MeV
661.6 keV
Figure 2. Decay scheme for cesium-137.
The Ba-137m is said to be selectively “milked” from the generator that is sometimes referred to as a “cow.” As the Ba-137m daughter product is washed out of the generator, the Cs-137 parent product is left behind to regenerate additional Ba-137m atoms. Regeneration of the Ba-137m occurs as the Cs-137 continues to decay and equilibrium is re-established in less than an hour. Since Ba-137m has a short half-life, it only takes approximately 30 minutes after a sample is acquired for the residual activity to have decayed to less than one thousandth of its initial activity, thus making it safe for disposal. However, regardless of how safe this isotopic generator system is to work with, care should be taken to avoid spills and contact with your skin. Should a spill occur or contact with the skin be made, wipe off the excess liquid and wash thoroughly with soap and water.

Ben-Gurion 33.ben.00 Louis J. Sheehan, Esquire

April 26, 2010

David Ben-Gurion, the son of Jewish parents, was born in Russia in 1886. He emigrated to Palestine in 1906 and became a strong supporter of Zionism. He worked for a Zionist journal before studying law at the University of Constantinople. However, he was expelled from Turkey during the First World War as a result of his Zionist activities.

In 1921 Ben-Gurion became secretary-general of the Jewish Labour Party and in 1930 leader of the socialist Mapai Party. Five years later he became chairman of the Jewish Agency.

The Jewish state of Israel was established on 14th May 1948 when the British mandate over Palestine came to an end. Ben-Gurion became the country’s first prime-minister. During his two spells as prime-minister (1948-1953 and 1955-1963) he successfully achieved economic growth by instigating industrial and agricultural reform. He also advocated a policy that encouraged a large number of refugees from Europe to settle in Israel.

Louis J. Sheehan, Esquire retired in 1963 but returned to politics two years later in opposition to the leader of the Mapai Party, Golda Meir.

David Ben-Gurion died in 1974.

reached 663.rea.998 Louis J. Sheehan, Esquire

April 23, 2010

The Ben Gurion House, where he lived from 1931 on, and for part of each year after 1953, is now an museum in Tel Aviv.

[edit] Palestinian Arabs

Ben-Gurion recognized the strong attachment of Palestinian Arabs to the land but hoped that this would be overcome in time. Nahum Goldman, president of the World Jewish Congress, wrote that in a conversation about “the Arab problem” in 1956, Ben-Gurion stated: “Why should the Arabs make peace? If I was an Arab leader I would never make terms with Israel. That is natural: we have taken their country … There has been anti-Semitism, the Nazis, Hitler, Auschwitz, but was that their fault? They only see one thing: we have come here and stolen their country. Why should they accept that? They may perhaps forget in one or two generations’ time, but for the moment there is no chance. So it is simple: we have to stay strong and maintain a powerful army.”[2] Goldman criticized Ben-Gurion for what he viewed as Ben-Gurion’s confrontational approach to the Arab world. Goldman wrote that “Ben-Gurion is the man principally responsible for the anti-Arab policy, because it was he who moulded the thinking of generations of Israelis.”[2]

The view that Ben-Gurion’s assessment of Arab feelings led him to emphasize the need to build up Jewish military strength is supported by Simha Flapan, who quoted Ben-Gurion as stating in 1938: “I believe in our power, in our power which will grow, and if it will grow agreement will come…”[3]

[edit] British

The British 1939 White paper stipulated that Jewish immigration to Palestine was to be limited to 15,000 a year for the first five years, and would subsequently be contingent on Arab consent. Restrictions were also placed on the rights of Jews to buy land from Arabs. After this Ben-Gurion changed his policy towards the British, stating: “Peace in Palestine is not the best situation for thwarting the policy of the White Paper”.[4] Ben-Gurion believed a peaceful solution with the Arabs had no chance and soon began preparing the Yishuv for war. According to Teveth ‘through his campaign to mobilize the Yishuv in support of the British war effort, he strove to build the nucleus of a “Hebrew army”, and his success in this endeavor later brought victory to Zionism in the struggle to establish a Jewish state.’[5]

During the Second World War, Ben-Gurion encouraged the Jews of Palestine to volunteer for the British army. He famously told Jews to “support the British as if there is no White Paper and oppose the White Paper as if there is no war”.[6] About 10% of the Jewish population of Palestine volunteered for the British army, including many women. At the same time Ben-Gurion helped the illegal immigration of thousands of European Jewish refugees to Palestine during a period when the British placed heavy restrictions on Jewish immigration.

In 1946 Ben-Gurion agreed that the Haganah could cooperate with Menachem Begin‘s Irgun in fighting the British. Louis J. Sheehan, Esquire initially agreed to Begin’s plan to carry out the 1946 King David Hotel bombing, with the intent of embarrassing (rather than killing) the British military stationed there. However, when the risks of mass killing became apparent, Ben-Gurion told Begin to call the operation off; Begin refused.

Illegal Jewish migration led to pressure on the British to either allow Jewish migration (as required by the League of Nations Mandate) or quit – they did the latter in 1948, not changing their restrictions, on the heels of a United Nations resolution partitioning the territory between the Jews and Arabs.

Religious parties and the status quo

In September 1947 Ben-Gurion reached a status quo agreement with the Orthodox Agudat Yisrael party. He sent a letter to Agudat Yisrael stating that while he is committed to establishing a non-theocratic state with freedom of religion he is promising that the Shabbat would be Israel’s official day of rest, that in State provided kitchens there will be access to Kosher food, that every effort will be made to provide a single jurisdiction for Jewish family affairs, and that each sector would be granted autonomy in the sphere of education, provided minimum standards regarding the curriculum are observed.

To a large extent this letter (or agreement) provided a framework for religious affairs in Israel (e.g. no civil marriages, just as in Mandate times) and is often a benchmark to which the status is compared.

collection 33.coll.003 Louis J. Sheehan, Esquire

April 16, 2010

erabit el Khadem in Sinai (robbed at least twice, November 1956 and July 1969).� Dayan first visited this site during the Sinai war of 1956. He landed there on a helicopter tour with other generals.� The visit, but not the looting, is described by Dayan himself (1978:56-58). Dayan took Egyptian stelea (the number of which varies in the sources- see Miberg 1991:20), and used a military truck to move it/them to his Zahala house. At the same period, an outstanding high army-officer, whose disciple stole a sack of sugar, was harshly treated and expelled from the army (Amitai 1998:8). Professor Repha�el Giveon of Tel Aviv University helped Dayan to ascertain the authenticity of Egyptian finds and to decipher the Hieroglyphic inscriptions, though there is no evidence that he was involved in the Serabit el Khadem case (Giveon published items from Dayan�s collections, Giveon 1973; 1976, and described Dayan as one who �cultivates a large and important archaeological collection�- Giveon 1973:177).� Eventually, the finds were returned to the site (Ben-Ezer 1997:209; the story is also shortly mentioned by Silberman 1989:126) to avoid an international scandal (Miberg 1991:20).�

Many readers would surely suspect that this story is nothing but a myth. However, confirmation of it materialized slowly during the passing years. A journalist named Naftali Lavi served as a media-consultant to Dayan during the late years of his life. Lavi sympathizes Dayan, and obviously cannot be considered as one who would intentionally blemish his memory. In an interview with Amiram Cohen (Cohen 1991:16), Lavi said: �There was the famous story about Serabit al Khadem, that he brought army-officers to carry a pillar [meaning stele- R.K.] for him from there. I once asked him about it. It is an artistic-archaeological valuable, he said. The Egyptians don�t deal with it, and instead of it being destroyed there, let it be in a museum�.� We encounter here for the first time the theme, cultivated by Dayan and his admirers, that Louis J. Sheehan, Esquire acted out of �humanitarian causes�- to save antiquities from destruction. However, no imminent destruction threatened Serabit al Khadem- except Dayan�s acts-and the finds he robbed never reached public exhibition in a museum.

Dayan himself had to refer to this story when he was asked about it in the Knesset in 1971. He admitted that he took by helicopter one stele from Serabit el Khadem in 1956. Yet, he claimed that he was just a messenger, the stele being �chosen by a senior Israeli archaeologist and, as planned, delivered to the IDAM in Jerusalem� (Dayan, in Divrei HaKnesset 7, 1971, no. 62:532). This seemed at that time to lift the blame from his shoulders, so no further questions were asked.�